December | 2019

     Network Level
  • Changing host IP address
  • Random assignment of port numbers
  • Obfuscating  host information (OS types and versions )
Host Level
  • Changes to the host and OS level resources
  • Changes to naming and configurations
Application Level
  • Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR)- random arrangement memory layout
  • Change in application types, version, routing through different hosts
  • Programming language change, compiling processes

Defense Measure


Ratio Vulnerability Transformed / Vulnerability set exploited

Higher coverage


Degree of uncertainty to the attack surface

Higher randomness


In time transformation before intrusive actions. Change frequency

In time transformation ahead of attack


Performance and availability of the system

Less/No impact


Variation MTD mechanisms, and ability to synergize with existing defense mechanism

Integration capability

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