Figure 1: A smart building journey
Tier 1: Building Operations with Isolated Building Management Systems (BMS)
This is the state of most commercially operated buildings where each BMS is maintained and operated in isolation, leading to higher energy consumption, resource wastage, inefficient operations, and inadequate occupant experiences.
Tier 2: Building Operations with Integrated Facility Management
In this state, the BMS data is integrated with the facility management systems, to enable intelligent task allocation to building operators. For example, an anomaly detected in the plumbing or lighting systems will trigger a task to the appropriate operators to do the physical inspections and maintenance activities.
Tier 3: Building Operations with Comprehensive Command and Control
In this state, the BMS are monitored in unison within a single pane view. Alarms generated by each system are captured and brought to a central dashboard resulting in faster resolution of issues. It might also leverage a converged network to provide the necessary power and connectivity to individual systems.
Tier 4: Building Operations with Cognitive Automation
In this state, sensing, intelligence, and automation is built into the building structures to enable automated optimization and efficiency drives. For example, access control and CCTV systems can sense the number of people entering a property, which triggers the calculation for optimal HVAC settings, and feeds the new settings into the HVAC system. Alternatively, IoT sensors can monitor temperature and occupant presence in any part of the property and use that to drive the lighting and HVAC settings.
Tier 5: Building Operations with Digital Twin
All the previous tiers build up to tier 5, where there is a complete digital replica of the building. The data feeds come from BMS and IoT sensors. A building information model leverages the static data and dynamic feed to provide 3D visualizations with dynamic simulation options for HVAC, daylight analysis, energy simulation, people movement, and many more. The cognitive automation takes the result of the simulations, sends commands to the BMS or to the facility management system, and assigns personnel for tasks to be completed.
Wipro Electronic City Campus: An Example of a Smart Building Success
Wipro undertook a smart building journey, and achieved a tier 5 transformation in its Electronic City Campus in Bangalore to overcome challenges like inefficient building operations, energy consumption and wastage, and operational efficiency. As part of this initiative, Wipro created an integrated command and control center for monitoring BMS, utilities (power, water) and metering, smart lighting, solid waste management, environmental monitoring, smart parking, people and asset tracking, access control, visitor management, and datacenter infrastructure management, among others.